Names of Our Streets
LORD ORFORD has, in one of his letters, projected a curious work to be written in a walk through the streets of the metropolis, similar to a French work entitled “Anecdotes des Rues de Paris.” I know of no such work, and suspect the vivacious writer alluded in his mind to Saint Foix’s “Essais Historiques sur Paris,” a very entertaining work, of which the plan is that projected by his lordship. We have had Pennant’s “London,” a work of this description; but, on the whole, this is a superficial performance, as it regards manners, characters, and events. That antiquary skimmed everything, and grasped scarcely anything: he wanted the patience of research, and the keen spirit which revivifies the past. Should Lord Orford’s project be carried into execution, or rather, should Pennant be hereafter improved, it would he first necessary to obtain the original names, or their meanings, of our streets, free from the disguisee in which time has concealed them. We shall otherwise lose many characters of persons, and many remarkable events, of which their original denominations would remind the historian of our streets.
I have noted down a few of these modern misnomers, that this future historian may he excited to discover more.
Mincing-lane was Mincheon-lane; from tenements pertaining to the Mincheons, or nuns of St. Helen’s, in Bishopsgate-street.
Gutter-lane, corrupted from Guthurun’s-lane; from its first owner, a citizen of great trade.
Blackwall-hall was Bakewell’s-hall, from one Thomas Bakewell; and originally called Basing’s-haugh, from a considerable family of that name, whose arms were once seen on the ancient building, and whose name is still perpetuated in Basing’s-lane.
Finch-lane was Finke’s-lane, from a whole family of this name.
Thread-needle-street was originally Thrid-needle-street, as Samuel Clarke dates it from his study there.
Billiter-lane is a corruption of Belzetter’s-lane, from the first builder or owner.
Crutched-friars was Crowched or Crossed-friars.
Lothbury was so named from the noise of founders at their work; and, as Howel pretends, this place was called Lothbury “disdainedly.”
Garlick-hill was Garlick-hithe, or hive, where garlick was sold.
Fetter-lane has been erroneously supposed to have some connexion with the fetters of criminals. It was in Charles the First’s time written Fewtor-lane, and is so in Howel’s Londinopolis, who explains it as Fewtors (or idle people) lying there as in a way leading to gardens. It was the haunt of these Faitors, or “mighty beggars.” The Faitour, that is, a defaytor, or defaulter, became Fewtor, and in the rapid pronunciation, or conception, of names, Fewtor has ended in Fetter-lane.
Gracechurch-street, sometimes called Gracious-street, was originally Grass-street, from a herb-market there.
Fenchurch-street, from a fenny or moorish ground by a river side.
Galley-key has preserved its name, but its origin may have been lost. Howel, in his “Londinopolis,” says, “here dwelt strangers called Galley-men, who brought wine, &c., in Galleys.
Greek-street, says Pennant, “I am sorry to degrade into Grig-street;” whether it alludes to the little vivacious eel, or to the merry character of its tenants, he does not resolve.
Bridewell was St. Bridget’s-well, from one dedicated to Saint Bride, or Bridget.
Marybone was St. Mary-on-the-Bourne, corrupted to Mary-bone; as Holborn was Old Bourne, or the Old River; Bourne being the ancient English for river; hence the Scottish Burn.
Newington was New-town.
Maiden-lane was so called from an image of the virgin, which, in Catholic days, had stood there, as Bagford writes to Hearne; and he says, that the frequent sign of the Maiden-head was derived from “our Lady’s-head.”
Lad-lane was originally Lady’s-lane, from the same personage.
Rood-lane was so denominated from a Rood, or Jesus on the cross, there placed, which was held in great regard.
Piccadilly was named after a hall called Piccadilla-hall, a place of sale for Piccadillies, or Turn-overs; a part of the fashionable dress which appeared about 1614. It has preserved its name uncorrupted; for Barnabe Rich, in his “Honestie of the Age,” has this passage on “the body-makers that do swarm through all parts, both of London and about London. The body is still pampered up in the very dropsy of excess. He that some fortie years sithens should have asked after a Pickadilly, I wonder who would have understood him; or could have told what a Pickadilly had been, either fish or flesh.”
Strype notices that in the liberties of Saint Catharine is a place called Hangman’s-gains: the traders of Hammes and Guynes, in France, anciently resorted there; thence the strange corruption.
Smithfield is a corruption of Smoothfield; smith signifies smooth, from the Saxon ſmeð, An antiquarian friend has seen it described in a deed as campus planus, which confirms the original meaning. It is described in Fitz Stephen’s account of London, written before the twelfth century, as a plain field, both in reality and name, where every Friday there is a celebrated rendezvous of fine horses, brought hither to be sold. Thither come to look or buy, a great number of earls, barons, knights, and a swarm of citizens. It is a pleasing sight to behold the ambling nags and generous colts, proudly prancing. This ancient writer continues a minute description, and perhaps gives the earliest one of a horse-race in this country. It is remarkable that Smithfield should have continued as a market for cattle for more than six centuries, with only the change of its vowels.
This is sufficient to show how the names of our streets require either to be corrected, or explained, by their historian. The French, among the numerous projects for the moral improvement of civilized man, had one, which, had it not been polluted by a horrid faction, might have been directed to a noble end. It was to name streets after eminent men. This would at least preserve them from the corruption of the people, and exhibit a perpetual monument of moral feeling, and of glory, to the rising genius of every age. With what excitement and delight may the young contemplatist, who first studies at Gray’s Inn, be reminded of Verulam-buildings!
The names of streets will often be found connected with some singular event, or the character of some person. Not long ago, a Hebrew, who had a quarrel with his community, built a neighbourhood at Bethnal-green, and retained the subject of his anger in the name which the houses bear, of Purim-place. This may startle some theological antiquary at a remote period, who may idly lose himself in abstruse conjectures on the sanctity of a name, derived from a well-known Hebrew festival; and, perhaps, colonise the spot with an ancient horde of Israelites.
§ Later editions of the Curiosities add a footnote on the subject of Piccadilly:
The term seems to have been applied to the article from the pointed or peaked edges of the lace which surrounded the stiff pleated ruffs, and may be constantly seen in portraits of the era of Elizabeth and James.